In our previous post about S3, we showed how to view request metrics, egress and accompanying costs and we're back again to show a breakdown of S3 storage types and costs. S3 Buckets currently support 19 different types of object storage classes(including overhead and staging storage classes) each with their own respective pricing specific to certain AWS regions. To add more complexity, some of these storage classes have flat storage rates where others have different prices for different tiers of storage where the per-unit cost will decrease as you reach certain storage thresholds. Lastly, S3 also charges you for "overhead storage" for certain storage classes - which is the cost of storing metadata about the underlying data held in an S3 Bucket. All of this can be fairly overwhelming but Vantage has built tools to simplify this all down.
Vantage now will automatically profile all S3 Buckets and their underlying storage classes and compute prices accordingly with no action necessary by you. If you're an existing user you can check your Vantage Console and see the breakdown of costs accordingly. There are two things Vantage will now show: (1) the "Monthly Price" field shown in tables where S3 Buckets are present shows the total cost of that S3 Bucket across S3 Storage Types and (2) On S3 Bucket resource pages you'll see the full breakdown of storage summaries and their accompanying costs. In the latter case, if your S3 Bucket is using multiple storage types, you'll see the corresponding prices and storage for all of them like what is shown below:
Soon, we will also be able to show you historical trends of storage sizes and prices on a per S3 Bucket basis so you can see how your S3 Buckets are growing for each storage class. Vantage will also include these cost summaries in your weekly email report so you can always stay up-to-date on how prices are trending.
What are the various S3 Storage types?
As mentioned above, S3 currently supports 19 different object storage types within an S3 Bucket. Each bucket is capable of holding objects from a single class or multiple classes. Below is a list of the storage types:
Standard Storage (StandardStorage) is for general purpose storage for any type of data, typically used for frequently accessed data. Standard Storage is priced on a tiered basis where it gets incrementally cheaper to store data as you store more. In us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.023 per GB.
There are four categories for S3 Intelligent-Tiering works by storing objects in four access tiers: two low latency access tiers optimized for frequent and infrequent access, and two opt-in archive access tiers designed for rare access. Objects uploaded or transitioned to S3 Intelligent-Tiering are automatically stored in the Frequent Access tier. S3 Intelligent-Tiering works by monitoring access patterns and then moving the objects that have not been accessed in 30 consecutive days to the Infrequent Access tier. Once you have activated one or both of the archive access tiers, S3 Intelligent-Tiering will automatically move objects that haven't been accessed for 90 consecutive days to the Archive Access tier and then after 180 consecutive days of no access to the Deep Archive Access tier. If the objects are accessed later, S3 Intelligent-Tiering moves the objects back to the Frequent Access tier.
The four Intelligent Tiering Tiers are below:
- Intelligent Tiering - Frequent Access (IntelligentTieringFAStorage): Objects uploaded to S3 Intelligent Tiering are automatically stored in the frequent access tier which has the same rates as Standard Storage. They are priced in a tiered manner. In us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.023 per GB.
- Intelligent Tiering - Infrequent Access (IntelligentTieringIAStorage): Objects in Frequent Access that haven't been accessed in 30 consecutive days are moved to this tier in which prices drop significantly. This is priced in a flat rate manner. In us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.0125 per GB.
- Intelligent Tiering - Archive Access (IntelligentTieringAAStorage): Upon activating the archive access tier for intelligent tiering, S3 will automatically move objects that haven't been accessed for 90 days to archive access where the pricing is the same as Glacier. It is priced at a flat rate. In us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.004 per GB.
- Intelligent Tiering - Deep Archive Access (IntelligentTieringDAAStorage): Upon activating the deep archive access tier for intelligent tiering, S3 will automatically move objects that haven't been accessed for 180 days to deep archive access. This is priced at the same rate as Glacier Deep Archive. In us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.00099 per GB.
S3 Standard - Infrequent Access
S3 Standard Infrequent Access (StandardIAStorage) is for data that is accessed less frequently, but requires rapid access when needed. It offers the high durability, high throughput, and low latency of S3 Standard, with a low per GB storage price and per GB retrieval fee. This combination of low cost and high performance make S3 Standard-IA ideal for long-term storage, backups, and as a data store for disaster recovery files. It is priced at a flat rate and in us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.0125 per GB. This is the same storage type included in the Intelligent Tiering Infrequent Access tier above.
There are two "overhead" charges associated with this storage class described below:
- StandardIASizeOverhead: There is a minimum billable size of 128KB. For example if you stored an object at 28KB, the StandardIASizeOverhead rate would increase by 128KB-28KB or 100KB and represented by this metric.
S3 Standard - Infrequent Access (One Zone)
S3 Infrequent Access One Zone (OneZoneIAStorage) is for data that is accessed less frequently, but requires rapid access when needed. Unlike other S3 Storage Classes which store data in a minimum of three Availability Zones, S3 Infrequent Access One Zone stores data in a single AZ and costs 20% less than S3 Standard Infrequent Access. The pricing is a fixed rate and in us-east-1, pricing is $0.01 per GB.
Similar to its three Availability counter-part above, S3 Standard Infrequent Access One Zone has the following overhead charge:
- OneZoneIASizeOverhead: There is a minimum billable size of 128KB. For example if you stored an object at 28KB, the StandardIASizeOverhead rate would increase by 128KB-28KB or 100KB and represented by this metric.
S3 Glacier (GlacierStorage) is a secure, durable, and low-cost storage class for data archiving. You can reliably store any amount of data at costs that are competitive with or cheaper than on-premises solutions. To keep costs low yet suitable for varying needs, S3 Glacier provides three retrieval options that range from a few minutes to hours. Glacier is priced at a flat rate and in us-east-1, pricing is $0.004 per GB.
Glacier also has overhead costs to be aware of that are described below:
- GlacierObjectOverhead: For each object that is stored in S3 Glacier, 40 KB of chargeable overhead is added for metadata.
- GlacierS3ObjectOverhead: Amazon S3 Glacier also requires an additional 32KB of data per object for S3 Glacier's index and metadata.
S3 Glacier Deep Archive
S3 Glacier Deep Archive (DeepArchiveStorage) is Amazon S3's lowest-cost storage class and supports long-term retention and digital preservation for data that may be accessed once or twice in a year. It is designed for customers ‚Äî particularly those in highly-regulated industries, such as the Financial Services, Healthcare, and Public Sectors ‚Äî that retain data sets for 7-10 years or longer to meet regulatory compliance requirements. S3 Glacier Deep Archive can also be used for backup and disaster recovery use cases, and is a cost-effective and easy-to-manage alternative to magnetic tape systems, whether they are on-premises libraries or off-premises services. Glacier Deep Archive is priced at a flat rates and in us-east-1, pricing is $0.00099 per GB.
Similar to S3 Glacier, there are various overhead and staging costs:
- DeepArchiveObjectOverhead: For each object that is stored in S3 Glacier, 40 KB of chargeable overhead is added for metadata.
- DeepArchiveS3ObjectOverhead: Amazon S3 Deep Archive also requires an additional 32KB of data per object for S3 Deep Archive index and metadata.
- DeepArchiveStagingStorage: Staging storage is where the parts of Multipart Upload are staged until the CompleteMultipart request is issued. The parts are staged in S3 standard, and storage is charged at the S3 Standard price.
S3 Reduced Redundancy Storage
Reduced Redundancy Storage (ReducedRedundancyStorage) is an Amazon S3 storage option that enables customers to store noncritical, reproducible data at lower levels of redundancy than Amazon S3's standard storage. It provides a highly available solution for distributing or sharing content that is durably stored elsewhere, or for storing thumbnails, transcoded media, or other processed data that can be easily reproduced. The Reduced Redundancy option stores objects on multiple devices across multiple facilities, providing 400 times the durability of a typical disk drive, but does not replicate objects as many times as standard Amazon S3 storage.
Reduced Redundancy is a tiered pricing model. In us-east-1, pricing starts at $0.024 per GB.
Ultimately, there are many S3 storage classes to choose from to fit your needs. With that customization comes a lot of complexity with keeping up-to-date with associated costs. Whether you're an individual using S3 for personal projects or a large enterprise with multiple storage classes across numerous S3 Buckets, Vantage can simplify the cost side of things by automatically monitoring your S3 Buckets, their associated costs and keeping you up-to-date with regular reports.